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      The Apache Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container

        Apache Tomcat 7

        Version 7.0.47, Oct 18 2013
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        User Guide

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        Apache Tomcat Development

        Monitoring and Managing Tomcat

        Table of Contents
        Introduction

        Monitoring is a key aspect of system administration. Looking inside a running server, obtaining some statistics or reconfiguring some aspects of an application are all daily administration tasks.

        Enabling JMX Remote

        Note: This configuration is needed only if you are going to monitor Tomcat remotely. It is not needed if you are going to monitor it locally, using the same user that Tomcat runs with.

        The Oracle website includes the list of options and how to configure JMX Remote on Java 6: http://docs.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/management/agent.html.

        The following is a quick configuration guide for Java 6:

        Add the following parameters to setenv.bat script of your Tomcat (see RUNNING.txt for details).
        Note: This syntax is for Microsoft Windows. The command has to be on the same line. It is wrapped to be more readable. If Tomcat is running as a Windows service, use its configuration dialog to set java options for the service. For un*xes remove "set " from beginning of the line.

        set CATALINA_OPTS=-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote
          -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=%my.jmx.port%
          -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false
          -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false
        
        1. If you require authorization, add and change this:
            -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true
            -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=../conf/jmxremote.password
            -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=../conf/jmxremote.access
          
        2. edit the access authorization file $CATALINA_BASE/conf/jmxremote.access:
          monitorRole readonly
          controlRole readwrite
          
        3. edit the password file $CATALINA_BASE/conf/jmxremote.password:
          monitorRole tomcat
          controlRole tomcat
          
          Tip: The password file should be read-only and only accessible by the operating system user Tomcat is running as.

        Note: The JSR 160 JMX-Adaptor opens a second data channel on a random port. That is a problem when you have a local firewall installed. To fix it, configure a JmxRemoteLifecycleListener, as described in listeners documentation.

        Manage Tomcat with JMX remote Ant Tasks

        To simplify JMX usage with Ant 1.6.x, a set of tasks is provided that may be used with antlib.

        antlib: Copy your catalina-ant.jar from $CATALINA_HOME/lib to $ANT_HOME/lib.

        The following example shows the JMX Accessor usage:
        Note: The name attribute value was wrapped here to be more readable. It has to be all on the same line, without spaces.

        <project name="Catalina Ant JMX"
              xmlns:jmx="antlib:org.apache.catalina.ant.jmx"
              default="state"
              basedir=".">
          <property name="jmx.server.name" value="localhost" />
          <property name="jmx.server.port" value="9012" />
          <property name="cluster.server.address" value="192.168.1.75" />
          <property name="cluster.server.port" value="9025" />
        
          <target name="state" description="Show JMX Cluster state">
            <jmx:open
              host="${jmx.server.name}"
              port="${jmx.server.port}"
              username="controlRole"
              password="tomcat"/>
            <jmx:get
              name=
        "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=localhost,
        senderAddress=${cluster.server.address},senderPort=${cluster.server.port}"
              attribute="connected"
              resultproperty="IDataSender.backup.connected"
              echo="false"
            />
            <jmx:get
              name="Catalina:type=ClusterSender,host=localhost"
              attribute="senderObjectNames"
              resultproperty="senderObjectNames"
              echo="false"
            />
            <!-- get current maxActiveSession from ClusterTest application
               echo it to Ant output and store at
               property <em>clustertest.maxActiveSessions.orginal</em>
            -->
            <jmx:get
              name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
              attribute="maxActiveSessions"
              resultproperty="clustertest.maxActiveSessions.orginal"
              echo="true"
            />
            <!-- set maxActiveSession to 100
            -->
            <jmx:set
              name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
              attribute="maxActiveSessions"
              value="100"
              type="int"
            />
            <!-- get all sessions and split result as delimiter <em>SPACE</em> for easy
               access all session ids directly with Ant property sessions.[0..n].
            -->
            <jmx:invoke
              name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
              operation="listSessionIds"
              resultproperty="sessions"
              echo="false"
              delimiter=" "
            />
            <!-- Access session attribute <em>Hello</em> from first session.
            -->
            <jmx:invoke
              name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
              operation="getSessionAttribute"
              resultproperty="Hello"
              echo="false"
            >
              <arg value="${sessions.0}"/>
              <arg value="Hello"/>
            </jmx:invoke>
            <!-- Query for all application manager.of the server from all hosts
               and bind all attributes from all found manager MBeans.
            -->
            <jmx:query
              name="Catalina:type=Manager,*"
              resultproperty="manager"
              echo="true"
              attributebinding="true"
            />
            <!-- echo the create properties -->
        <echo>
        senderObjectNames: ${senderObjectNames.0}
        IDataSender.backup.connected: ${IDataSender.backup.connected}
        session: ${sessions.0}
        manager.length: ${manager.length}
        manager.0.name: ${manager.0.name}
        manager.1.name: ${manager.1.name}
        hello: ${Hello}
        manager.ClusterTest.0.name: ${manager.ClusterTest.0.name}
        manager.ClusterTest.0.activeSessions: ${manager.ClusterTest.0.activeSessions}
        manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_SESSION_EXPIRED:
         ${manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_SESSION_EXPIRED}
        manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_GET_ALL_SESSIONS:
         ${manager.ClusterTest.0.counterSend_EVT_GET_ALL_SESSIONS}
        </echo>
        
          </target>
        
        </project>
        

        import: Import the JMX Accessor Project with <import file="${CATALINA.HOME}/bin/catalina-tasks.xml" /> and reference the tasks with jmxOpen, jmxSet, jmxGet, jmxQuery, jmxInvoke, jmxEquals and jmxCondition.

        JMXAccessorOpenTask - JMX open connection task

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        url Set JMX connection URL - service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:8050/jmxrmi
        host Set the host, shortcut the very long URL syntax. localhost
        port Set the remote connection port 8050
        username remote JMX connection user name.
        password remote JMX connection password.
        ref Name of the internal connection reference. With this attribute you can configure more the one connection inside the same Ant project. jmx.server
        echo Echo the command usage (for access analysis or debugging) false
        if Only execute if a property of the given name exists in the current project.
        unless Only execute if a property of the given name not exists in the current project.

        Example to open a new JMX connection

          <jmx:open
            host="${jmx.server.name}"
            port="${jmx.server.port}"
          />
        

        Example to open a JMX connection from URL, with authorization and store at other reference

          <jmx:open
            url="service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:9024/jmxrmi"
            ref="jmx.server.9024"
            username="controlRole"
            password="tomcat"
          />
        

        Example to open a JMX connection from URL, with authorization and store at other reference, but only when property jmx.if exists and jmx.unless not exists

          <jmx:open
            url="service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:9024/jmxrmi"
            ref="jmx.server.9024"
            username="controlRole"
            password="tomcat"
            if="jmx.if"
            unless="jmx.unless"
          />
        

        Note: All properties from jmxOpen task also exists at all other tasks and conditions.

        JMXAccessorGetTask: get attribute value Ant task

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
        attribute Existing MBean attribute (see Tomcat MBean description above)
        ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
        echo Echo command usage (access and result) false
        resultproperty Save result at this project property
        delimiter Split result with delimiter (java.util.StringTokenizier) and use resultproperty as prefix to store tokens.
        separatearrayresults When return value is an array, save result as property list ($resultproperty.[0..N] and $resultproperty.length) true

        Example to get remote MBean attribute from default JMX connection

          <jmx:get
            name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
            attribute="maxActiveSessions"
            resultproperty="servlets-examples.maxActiveSessions"
          />
        

        Example to get and result array and split it at separate properties

          <jmx:get
              name="Catalina:type=ClusterSender,host=localhost"
              attribute="senderObjectNames"
              resultproperty="senderObjectNames"
          />
        
        Access the senderObjectNames properties with:
          ${senderObjectNames.length} give the number of returned sender list.
          ${senderObjectNames.[0..N]} found all sender object names
        

        Example to get IDataSender attribute connected only when cluster is configured.
        Note: The name attribute value was wrapped here to be more readable. It has to be all on the same line, without spaces.

          <jmx:query
            failonerror="false"
            name="Catalina:type=Cluster,host=${tomcat.application.host}"
            resultproperty="cluster"
          />
          <jmx:get
            name=
        "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=${tomcat.application.host},
        senderAddress=${cluster.backup.address},senderPort=${cluster.backup.port}"
            attribute="connected"
            resultproperty="datasender.connected"
            if="cluster.0.name" />
        
        JMXAccessorSetTask: set attribute value Ant task

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
        attribute Existing MBean attribute (see Tomcat MBean description above)
        value value that set to attribute
        type type of the attribute. java.lang.String
        ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
        echo Echo command usage (access and result) false

        Example to set remote MBean attribute value

          <jmx:set
            name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
            attribute="maxActiveSessions"
            value="500"
            type="int"
          />
        

        JMXAccessorInvokeTask: invoke MBean operation Ant task

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
        operation Existing MBean operation (see Tomcat funcspecs/fs-admin-opers.html).
        ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
        echo Echo command usage (access and result) false
        resultproperty Save result at this project property
        delimiter Split result with delimiter (java.util.StringTokenizier) and use resultproperty as prefix to store tokens.
        separatearrayresults When return value is an array, save result as property list ($resultproperty.[0..N] and $resultproperty.length) true

        stop an application

          <jmx:invoke
            name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
            operation="stop"/>
        
        Now you can find the sessionid at ${sessions.[0..N} properties and access the count with ${sessions.length} property.

        Example to get all sessionids

          <jmx:invoke
            name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlets-examples,host=localhost"
            operation="listSessionIds"
            resultproperty="sessions"
            delimiter=" "
          />
        
        Now you can find the sessionid at ${sessions.[0..N} properties and access the count with ${sessions.length} property.

        Example to get remote MBean session attribute from session ${sessionid.0}

          <jmx:invoke
            name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/ClusterTest,host=localhost"
            operation="getSessionAttribute"
            resultproperty="hello">
             <arg value="${sessionid.0}"/>
             <arg value="Hello" />
          </jmx:invoke>
        

        Example to create a new access logger valve at vhost localhost

         <jmx:invoke
                 name="Catalina:type=MBeanFactory"
                 operation="createAccessLoggerValve"
                 resultproperty="accessLoggerObjectName"
         >
             <arg value="Catalina:type=Host,host=localhost"/>
         </jmx:invoke>
        
        Now you can find new MBean with name stored at ${accessLoggerObjectName} property.

        JMXAccessorQueryTask: query MBean Ant task

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        name JMX ObjectName query string -- Catalina:type=Manager,*
        ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
        echo Echo command usage (access and result) false
        resultproperty Prefix project property name to all founded MBeans (mbeans.[0..N].objectname)
        attributebinduing bind ALL MBean attributes in addition to name false
        delimiter Split result with delimiter (java.util.StringTokenizier) and use resultproperty as prefix to store tokens.
        separatearrayresults When return value is an array, save result as property list ($resultproperty.[0..N] and $resultproperty.length) true

        Get all Manager ObjectNames from all services and Hosts

          <jmx:query
            name="Catalina:type=Manager,*
            resultproperty="manager" />
        
        Now you can find the Session Manager at ${manager.[0..N].name} properties and access the result object counter with ${manager.length} property.

        Example to get the Manager from servlet-examples application an bind all MBean properties

          <jmx:query
            name="Catalina:type=Manager,context=/servlet-examples,host=localhost*"
            attributebinding="true"
            resultproperty="manager.servletExamples" />
        
        Now you can find the manager at ${manager.servletExamples.0.name} property and can access all properties from this manager with ${manager.servletExamples.0.[manager attribute names]}. The result object counter from MBeans is stored ad ${manager.length} property.

        Example to get all MBeans from a server and store inside an external XML property file

        <project name="jmx.query"
                    xmlns:jmx="antlib:org.apache.catalina.ant.jmx"
                    default="query-all" basedir=".">
        <property name="jmx.host" value="localhost"/>
        <property name="jmx.port" value="8050"/>
        <property name="jmx.username" value="controlRole"/>
        <property name="jmx.password" value="tomcat"/>
        
        <target name="query-all" description="Query all MBeans of a server">
          <!-- Configure connection -->
          <jmx:open
            host="${jmx.host}"
            port="${jmx.port}"
            ref="jmx.server"
            username="${jmx.username}"
            password="${jmx.password}"/>
        
          <!-- Query MBean list -->
          <jmx:query
            name="*:*"
            resultproperty="mbeans"
            attributebinding="false"/>
        
          <echoproperties
            destfile="mbeans.properties"
            prefix="mbeans."
            format="xml"/>
        
          <!-- Print results -->
          <echo message=
            "Number of MBeans in server ${jmx.host}:${jmx.port} is ${mbeans.length}"/>
        </target>
        </project>
        
        Now you can find all MBeans inside the file mbeans.properties.

        JMXAccessorCreateTask: remote create MBean Ant task

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=MBeanFactory
        className Existing MBean full qualified class name (see Tomcat MBean description above)
        classLoader ObjectName of server or web application classloader
        ( Catalina:type=ServerClassLoader,name=[server,common,shared] or
        Catalina:type=WebappClassLoader,context=/myapps,host=localhost)
        ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
        echo Echo command usage (access and result) false

        Example to create remote MBean

          <jmx:create
            ref="${jmx.reference}"
            name="Catalina:type=MBeanFactory"
            className="org.apache.commons.modeler.BaseModelMBean"
            classLoader="Catalina:type=ServerClassLoader,name=server">
            <arg value="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.MBeanFactory" />
          </jmx:create>
        

        Warning: Many Tomcat MBeans can't be linked to their parent once
        created. The Valve, Cluster and Realm MBeans are not automatically
        connected with their parent. Use the MBeanFacrory create
        operation instead.

        JMXAccessorUnregisterTask: remote unregister MBean Ant task

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=MBeanFactory
        ref JMX Connection reference jmx.server
        echo Echo command usage (access and result) false

        Example to unregister remote MBean

          <jmx:unregister
            name="Catalina:type=MBeanFactory"
          />
        

        Warning: A lot of Tomcat MBeans can't be unregister.
        The MBeans are not unlinked from their parent. Use MBeanFacrory
        remove operation instead.

        JMXAccessorCondition: express condition

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        url Set JMX connection URL - service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:8050/jmxrmi
        host Set the host, shortcut the very long URL syntax. localhost
        port Set the remote connection port 8050
        username remote JMX connection user name.
        password remote JMX connection password.
        ref Name of the internal connection reference. With this attribute you can configure more the one connection inside the same Ant project. jmx.server
        name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
        echo Echo condition usage (access and result) false
        if Only execute if a property of the given name exists in the current project.
        unless Only execute if a property of the given name not exists in the current project.
        value (requiered) Second arg for operation
        type Value type to express operation (support long and double) long
        operation express one
        • == equals
        • != not equals
        • > greater than (&gt;)
        • >= greater than or equals (&gt;=)
        • < lesser than (&lt;)
        • <= lesser than or equals (&lt;=)
        ==

        Wait for server connection and that cluster backup node is accessable

        <target name="wait">
          <waitfor maxwait="${maxwait}" maxwaitunit="second" timeoutproperty="server.timeout" >
            <and>
              <socket server="${server.name}" port="${server.port}"/>
              <http url="${url}"/>
              <jmx:condition
                operation="=="
                host="localhost"
                port="9014"
                username="controlRole"
                password="tomcat"
                name=
        "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=localhost,senderAddress=192.168.111.1,senderPort=9025"
                attribute="connected"
                value="true"
              />
            </and>
          </waitfor>
          <fail if="server.timeout" message="Server ${url} don't answer inside ${maxwait} sec" />
          <echo message="Server ${url} alive" />
        </target>
        

        JMXAccessorEqualsCondition: equals MBean Ant condition

        List of Attributes
        Attribute Description Default value
        url Set JMX connection URL - service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:8050/jmxrmi
        host Set the host, shortcut the very long URL syntax. localhost
        port Set the remote connection port 8050
        username remote JMX connection user name.
        password remote JMX connection password.
        ref Name of the internal connection reference. With this attribute you can configure more the one connection inside the same Ant project. jmx.server
        name Full qualified JMX ObjectName -- Catalina:type=Server
        echo Echo condition usage (access and result) false

        Wait for server connection and that cluster backup node is accessible

        <target name="wait">
          <waitfor maxwait="${maxwait}" maxwaitunit="second" timeoutproperty="server.timeout" >
            <and>
              <socket server="${server.name}" port="${server.port}"/>
              <http url="${url}"/>
              <jmx:equals
                host="localhost"
                port="9014"
                username="controlRole"
                password="tomcat"
                name=
        "Catalina:type=IDataSender,host=localhost,senderAddress=192.168.111.1,senderPort=9025"
                attribute="connected"
                value="true"
              />
            </and>
          </waitfor>
          <fail if="server.timeout" message="Server ${url} don't answer inside ${maxwait} sec" />
          <echo message="Server ${url} alive" />
        </target>
        

        Using the JMXProxyServlet

        Tomcat offers an alternative to using remote (or even local) JMX connections while still giving you access to everything JMX has to offer: Tomcat's JMXProxyServlet.

        The JMXProxyServlet allows a client to issue JMX queries via an HTTP interface. This technique offers the following advantages over using JMX directly from a client program:

        • You don't have to launch a full JVM and make a remote JMX connection just to ask for one small piece of data from a runing server
        • You don't have to know how to work with JMX connections
        • You don't need any of the complex configuration covered in the rest of this page
        • Your client program does not have to be written in Java

        A perfect example of JMX overkill can be seen in the case of popular server-monitoring software such as Nagios or Ichinga: if you want to monitor 10 items via JMX, you will have to launch 10 JVMs, make 10 JMX connections, and then shut them all down every few minutes. With the JMXProxyServlet, you can make 10 HTTP connections and be done with it.

        You can find out more information about the JMXProxyServlet in the documentation for the Tomcat manager.

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